The Laboratory of Professor Steven Wilhelm








  • Denison ER, BN Zepernick, RML McKay and SW Wilhelm. Metatranscriptomic analysis reveals dissimilarity in viral community activity between an ice-free and ice-covered winter in Lake Erie. mSystems doi: 10.1128/msystems.00753-24

  • Chase EE, AR Truchon, B Creasey and SW Wilhelm. Time of day of infection shapes development of a eukaryotic algal-Nucleocytoviricota virocell. bioRxiv. doi:

  • Truchon AR, EE Chase, AR Stark and SW Wilhelm. 2024. The diel disconnect between cell growth and division in Aureococcus is interrupted by giant virus infection. bioRxiv.  doi:10.1101/2024.05.01.592014

  • Chase EE, AR Truchon, WW Schepens and SW Wilhelm. 2024.  Aureococcus anophagefferens strain CCMP1851: Draft genome of a second Kratosvirus quantuckense susceptible host strain for this host-giant virus model system. Microbiology Resource Announcements. doi:10.1128/mra.00292-24

  • Muratore DJ, NE GilbertGR LeCleirSW Wilhelm, andJS Weitz. 2024. Diel partitioning in microbial phosphorus acquisition in the Sargasso Sea. bioRxiv doi:10.1101/2024.03.28.587236.

  • Zepernick BN, RML McKay, RM Martin, GS Bullerjahn, HW Paerl, and SW Wilhelm. 2024.  A tale of two blooms: do ecological paradigms for algal bloom success and succession require revisiting? Journal of Great Lakes Research doi:10.1016/j/jglr.2024.102336.

  • Liang X, M Radosevich, JM DeBruyn, SW Wilhelm, R McDearis and J. Zhuang. 2024. Incorporating viruses into soil ecology: A new dimension to understand biogeochemical cycling. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 54: 117-137.  doi: 10.1080/10643389.2023.2223123.

  • Zepernick BN, EE Chase, ER Denison, NE Gilbert, RM Martin, AR Truchon, T Frenken, WR Cody, JD Chaffin, GS Bullerjahn, RML McKay and SW Wilhelm 2024, Declines in ice cover are accompanied by light limitation responses and community change in freshwater diatoms. The ISME Journal.  18 (1): wrad015.    doi:10.1093/ismejo/wrad015.


  • LeCleir GR, J Bassett and SW Willhelm. 2023. Effects of iron concentration and DFB (Desferrioxamine-B) on transcriptional profiles of an ecologically relevant marine bacterium. PLoS ONE 18(12):: e0295257   doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0295257

  • Truchon AR, EE Chase, ER Gann M Moniruzzaman, BA Creasey, FO Aylward, C Xiao, CJ Gobler, and SW Wilhelm. 2023. Kratosvirus quantuckense: the history and novelty of an algal bloom disrupting virus and a model for giant virus research. Frontiers in Microbiology 14:1284617  doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1284617

  • Stark GF, RM Martin, LE Smith, B. Wei, FL Hellweger, GS Bullerjahn, RML McKay, GL Boyer  and SW Wilhelm, 2023. Microcystin aids in cold temperature acclimation:  differences between a toxic Microcystis wildtype and non-toxic mutant. Harmful Algae 129:102351   doi: 0.1016/j.hal.2023.102531 .

  • Stark GF, AR Truchon, E Dittmann and SW Wilhelm. 2023.  Closed circular genome sequence of a Microcystis aeruginosa PCC7806 ΔmcyB (UTK) nontoxic mutant. Microbiology Resource Announcements  doi:10.1128/MRA.00700-23

  • Wieczynski DJ, KM Yoshimura, ER Denison, S Geisen, JM DeBruyn, AJ Shaw, DJ Weston, DA Pelletier, SW Wilhelm and JP Gibert.  2023. Viral infections mediate microbial controls on ecosystem responses to global warming. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 99: fiad016  doi: 10.1093/femsec/fiad016.

  • Gilbert NG, GR LeCleir, HL Pound, RF Strzepek, MJ Ellwood, BS Twining, S Roux, PW Boyd, and SW Wilhelm.  2023.  Giant virus infection signatures are modulated by euphotic zone depth strata and iron regimes of the subantarctic Southern Ocean.  mSystems  doi: 10.1128/msystems.01260-22

  • Martin RM, MK Denney, HL Pound, JD Chaffin, GS Bullerjahn, RML McKay, A Zastepa, KA Jones, HF Castro, SR Campagna and SW Wilhelm.  2023.  Sulfolipid substitution ratios of Microcystis aeruginosa and planktonic communities as an indicator of phosphorus limitation in Lake Erie. Limnology & Oceanography   doi: 10.1002/lno.12333

  • Zepernick BN, SW Wilhelm, GS Bullerjahn and HW Paerl. 2023.   Climate change and the aquatic continuum: a cyanobacterial comeback story. Environmental Microbiology Reports 15:3-12  doi: 10.1111/1758-2229.13122


  • Zepernick BN, DJ Niknejad, GF Stark, AR Truchon, RM Martin, KL Rossignol, HW Paerl, and SW Wilhelm.  2023.  Morphological, physiological, and transcriptional responses of the freshwater diatom Fragilaria crotonensis to elevated pH conditions. Frontiers in Microbiology 13: 1044464  doi:10.3389/fmicb.2022.1044464

  • Hellweger FL, C Schampera, RM Martin, F Eigemann, DJ Smith, GJ Dick and SW Wilhelm. 2022. Response to comment on "Models predict planned phosphorus load reduction will make Lake Erie more toxic". SCIENCE 378:eade2277   doi: 10.1126/science.ade2277

  • Wilhelm SW, FL Hellweger, RM Martin, C Schampera, F Eigemann, DR Smith and CJ Dick.  2022.  Response to “Model assumptions limit implications for nitrogen and phosphorus management”: the need to move beyond the phosphorus = biomass – toxin doctrine. Journal of Great Lakes Research  48 doi: 10.1016/j.jglr.2022.10.001

  • Zepernick BN, ER Gann, AR Truchon,  GL Boyer and SW Wilhelm. 2022. Draft genome sequence of the freshwater diatom Fragilaria crotonensis SAG 28.96.  Microbiology Resource Announcements doi:10.1128/mra00289-22

  • Martin RM,  AR Truchon, ER Gann and SW Wilhelm.  2022. Metagenome-Assembled Genome of a Pseudanabaena sp. from a Crimson Cyanobacterial Bloom in Lake Salubria, New York, USA. Microbiology Resource Announcements doi:10.1128/mra00494-22

  • Gilbert NE, GR LeCLeir, RF Strzepek, MJ Ellwood, BS Twining,  S Roux, C Pennachhio, PW Boyd and SW Wilhelm.  2022. Bioavailable iron titrations reveal oceanic Synechococcus ecotypes optimized for different iron availabilities. ISME Communications 2: 1-12.   doi:10.1038/s43705-022-00132-5

  • Hellweger FL, RM Martin, F Eigmann, DJ Smith, GJ Dick, and SW Wilhelm. 2022. Models predict planned phosphorus load reduction will make Lake Erie more toxic.   SCIENCE  doi: 10.1126/science.abm6791

  • Truchon AR, ER Gann and SW Wilhelm.  2022. A closed, circular genome of Aureococcus anophagefferens Virus, the lytic virus of brown tide forming algae.  Microbiology Resource Announcements. doi: 10.1128/mra.00282-22

  • Zepernick BNƗ, ER DenisonƗ, JD Chaffin, GS Bullerjahn, CP Pennacchio, T Frenken, DH Peck, JT Anderson, D Niles, A Zastepa, RML McKay and SW Wilhelm. 2022.  Metatranscriptomic sequencing of winter and spring planktonic communities from Lake Erie - a Laurentian Great Lake. Microbiology Resource Announcements doi:10.1128/mra.00351-22  (Ɨco-lead authors)

  • Sofen LE, OA Antipova, MJ Ellwood, NE Gilert, MC Lohan, C Mahaffey, EL Mann, DC Onemus, #GR LeCleir, SW Wilhelm, and BS Twining. 2022. Trace metal contents of autotrophic flagellates from contrasting open-ocean ecosystems Limnology & Oceanography Letters   doi:10.1002/lol2.10258.

  • Pound HL, RM Martin, BN Zepernick, CJ Christopher, SM Howard, HF Castro, SR Campagna, GL Boyer, GS Bullerjahn, JD Chaffin and SW Wilhelm. 2022. Changes in microbiome activity and sporadic viral infections help explain observed variability in microcosm studies. Frontiers in Microbiology  13:809989     doi:10.3389/fmicb.2022.809989  

  • Gann ER, AR Truchon, SE Papoulis, DT Dyhrman, CJ Gobler and SW Wilhelm. 2022.  Aureococcus anophagefferens (Pelagophyceae) genomes improve evaluation of nutrient acquisition strategies involved in brown tide dynamics. Journal of Phycology   58: 146-160   doi:10.1111/jpy/13221



  • Pound HL, ER Gann and SW Wilhelm. 2021. A comparative study of metatranscriptomic assessment methods to characterize Microcystis blooms. Limnology & Oceanography: Methods  doi: 10.1002/lom3.10465

  • R Corchis-Scott, Q Geng, RSeth, R Ray, M Beg, N Biswas, L Charron, K Drouillard, R D'Souza, D Heath, C Houser, F Lawal, J McGinlay, S Menard, L Porter, D Rawlings, M Scholl, K Siu, Y Tong, C Weisener, SW Wilhelm, and RM McKay.  2021. Averting an outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in a university residence hall through wastewater surveillance. Microbiology Spectrum 9:e00792-21     doi: 10.1128/Spectrum.00792-21.

  • Hoke, AK, G Reynoso, MR Smith, MI Gardner, DJ Lockwood, NE Gilbert, SW Wilhelm, IR Becker, GJ Brennan, LK Utz, KE Crider, SR Farnon, V Mendoza, ZP Zimmerman, AC Poole, LL Wurch and MM Steffen. 2021. Genomic signatures of Lake Erie bacteria suggest interaction in the Microcystis phycosphere.  PLoS ONE. 16(9): e0257017   doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0257017

  • Pound HL, RM Martin, CS Sheik, MM Steffen, SE Newell, GJ Dick, RML McKay, GS Bullerjahn and SW Wilhelm. 2021. Environmental studies of cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms should include interactions with the dynamic microbiome. Environmental Science & Technology. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.1c04207

  • Papoulis SE, SW Wilhelm, D Talmy and ER Zinser. 2021. Nutrient loading and viral memory drive accumulation of restriction modification systems in bloom-forming cyanobacteria.  mBio

  • Gann ER, Y. Kang, ST Dyhrman, CJ Gobler and SW Wilhelm. 2021. Metatranscriptome library preparation influences analyses of viral community activity during a brown tide bloom. Frontiers in Microbiology 10.3389/fmicb.2021.664189

  • Kang Y, MJ Harke, DL Berry, JL Collier, SW Wilhelm, ST Dyhrman, CJ Gobler. 2021. Transcriptomic responses of four pelagophytes to nutrient and light limitation. Frontiers in Marine Science doi: 10.3389/fmars.2021.636699.

  • Zepernick BN, ER Gann, HL Pound, RM Martin, LE Krausfeldt, JD Chaffin and SW Wilhelm.  2021. Elevated pH conditions associated with Microcystis spp. blooms decrease viability of the cultured diatom Fragilaria crotonensis and natural diatoms in Lake ErieFrontiers in Microbiology 12: 188   10.3389/fmicb.2021.598736.

  • Pound HL and SW Wilhelm (2021) Emerging insights into the role of cyanophages. In Chorus I and M Welker (eds) Toxic cyanobacteria in water: a guide to their public health consequences, monitoring, and management. CRC Press, New York. p224. ISBN 9781003081449 (ebook).

  • Barnard MA, JD Chaffin, HE Plaas, GL Boyer, B Wei, SW Wilhelm, KL Rossignol, JS Braddy, GS Bullerjahn, TB Bridgeman, TW Davis, J Wei, M Bu and HW Paerl.  2021. Roles of nutrient limitation on Western Lake Erie CyanoHAB toxin production.  Toxins 13: 47.  doi: 10.3390/toxins13010047

  • Martin RM, M Kausch, K Yap, J Wehr, GL Boyer and SW Wilhelm. 2021. Metagenome-assembled genome sequences of Raphidiopsis raciborskii and Planktothrix agardhii from a cyanobacterial bloom in Kissena Lake, New York, USA. Microbiology Resource Announcements  10:e01380-20.  doi: 10.1128/MRA.01380-20.



  • Pound HL and SW Wilhelm. 2020. Tracing the active genetic diversity of Microcystis and Microcystis phage through a temporal survey of Taihu.  PLoS ONE  15: e0244482  doi:0.1371/journal.pone.0244482

  • Martin RM,  M Moniruzzaman, GF Stark, ER Gann, DS Derminio, Bofan Wei, FL Hellweger, A Pinto, GL Boyer, and SW Wilhelm. 2020. Episodic decrease in temperature increases mcy gene transcription and cellular microcystin in continuous cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806. Frontiers in Microbiology 11:601864    doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.601864

  • Yang G, X Tang, SW Wilhelm, W Pan, Z Rui, L Xu, C Zhong and X Hu.  2020. Intermittent disturbance benefits colony size, growth and dominance of Microcystis in Lake Taihu under field simulation conditions.  Harmful Algae 99:101909. doi:10.1016/j.hal.2020.101909

  • Gann ER, Y Xian, P Abraham, R Hettich, TB Reynolds, C Xiao and SW Wilhelm. 2020. Structural and proteomic studies of the Aureococcus anophagefferens Virus demonstrate a global distribution of virus-encoded carbohydrate processing. Frontiers in Microbiology 11: 2047   doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.02047

  • Wilhelm SW, GS Bullerjahn and RML McKay.  2020. The complicated and confusing ecology of Microcystis blooms. 2020.  mBio  11: e00529-20 10.1128/mBio.00529-20).

  • Jenny J-P., O Anneville, F Arnaud, Y Baulaz, D Bouffard, I Domaizon,  SA Bocaniov, N Chere, M Dittrich, J-M Dorioz, ES Dunlap, G Dur, J Guillard, T Guinaldo, S Jacquet, A Jamoneau, Z Jawed, E Jeppesen, G Krantzberg, J Lenters, B Leoni, M Meybeck, V Nava, T Noges, P Noges, M Patelli, V Pebbles, M-E Perga, S Rasconi, CR Ruetz III, L Rudstam, N Salmaso, S Sapna, D Straile, O Tammeorg, MT Twiss, DG Uzarski, A-M Ventela, WF Vincent, SW Wilhelm, S-A Wanberg. GA Weyhenmeyer.  2020.   Scientists warning to humanity: rapid degradation of the world’s large lakes. Journal of Great Lakes Research doi:10.1016/j.jglr.2020.05.006.

  • Krausfeldt LE, AT Farmer, HF Castro, GL Boyer, SR Campagna and SW Wilhelm. 2020. Nitrogen flux into metabolites and microcystins changes in response to different nitrogen sources in Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843.  Environmental Microbiology 22 (6): 2419 - 2431   doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.15032.

  • Coy SR, ER Gann, SE Papoulis, M Holder, N Ajami, J Petrosino, ER Zinser, JL Van Etten and SW Wilhelm. 2020. SMRT sequencing of Paramecium bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 reveals diverse methylation stability in adenines targeted by restriction modification systems. Frontiers in Microbiology 11:887  doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.00887.

  • Liang X, Y Zhang, KE Wommack, SW Wilhelm, JM DeBruyn, AC Sherfy, J Zhuang, M Radosevich. 2020.  Lysogenic reproductive strategies of viral communities vary with soil depth and are correlated with bacterial diversity, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 107767.   doi: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2020.107767

  • Gann ER, BJ Hughes, TB Reynolds and SW Wilhelm. 2020. Internal nitrogen pools shape the infection of Aureococcus anophagefferens CCMP 1984 by a giant virus. Frontiers in Microbiology.   11: 492  doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00492

  • Zepernick BN, LE Krausfeldt and SW Wilhelm. 2020. Flaming as part of aseptic technique increases CO2 (g) and decreases pH in freshwater culture media.  Limnology & Oceanography: Methods.   18:211-219  doi: 10.1002/lom3.10355

  • Gann ER, PG Gainer, TB Reynolds and SW Wilhelm. 2020. Influence of light on the infection of Aureococcus anophagefferens CCMP 1984 by a "giant virus”. PLoS ONE  15: e0226758   doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0226758.

  • Pound HL, ER Gann, X Tang, LE Krausfeldt, M Huff, M Staton, D Talmy and SW Wilhelm. 2020. The "neglected viruses" of Taihu: abundant transcripts for viruses infecting eukaryotes and their potential role in phytoplankton succession. Frontiers in Microbiology. 11:338.    doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00338

  • Newell S.E., Wilhelm S.W., McCarthy M.J. (2020) Nutrient Cycling. In: Gargaud M. et al. (eds) Encyclopedia of Astrobiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.



  • Krausfeldt LE, MM Steffen, RM McKay, GS Bullerjahn, GL Boyer and SW Wilhelm. 2019. Insight into the molecular mechanisms for microcystin biodegradation in Lake Erie and Lake Taihu. Frontiers in Microbiology. 10:2741  doi:  10.3389/fmicb.2019.02741

  • Davenport EJ, MJ Neudeck, PG Matson, GS Bullerjahn, TW Davis, SW Wilhelm, MK Denny, LE Krausfeldt, JM Stough, KA Meyer, GJ Dick, TH Johengen, E Lindquist, SG Tringe and RM McKay. 2019. Metatranscriptomic analyses of diel metabolic functions during a Microcystis bloom in western Lake Erie (USA). Frontiers in Microbiology. 10: 2081   doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.02081.

  • Jackson JW, TJ Hancock, E LaPrade, P Dogra, ER Gann, TJ Masi, R Panchanathan, WE Miller, SW Wilhelm and TE Sparer.  2019. Human cytomegalovirus chemokine, vCXCL-1, modulates normal dissemination kinetics of murine cytomegalovirus in vivo.  mBio  10(3): e01289-19  doi: 10.1128/mBio.01289-19.

  • Liang X, RE Wagner, J Zhuang, JM DeBruyn, SW Wilhelm, F Liu, L Yang, ME Staton, AC Sherfy, and M Radosevich. 2019. Viral abundance and diversity vary with depth in a southeastern United States agricultural ultisol. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 107546. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2019.107546

  • Chen H, ZK Yang, D Yip, RH Morris, SJ Lebreux, MA Cregger, DM Klingeman, D Hui, RL Hettich, SW Wilhelm, G Wang, FE Loeffler and CW Schadt. 2019. One-time nitrogen fertilization shifts switchgrass soil microbiomes within a context of larger sparial and temporal variation. PLoS ONE  14(6):e0211310 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0211310

  • Zhong C, G Yang, B Qin, SW Wilhelm, L Yu, L Han, Z Rui, H Yang and Z Zhang. 2019. Effects of mixing intensity on colony size and growth of Microcystis aeruginosa. Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology  55:12  doi:10.1051/limn/2019011

  • Krausfeldt LE, AT Farmer, HF Castro Gonzalez, BN Zepernick, SR Campagna and SW Wilhelm. 2019. Urea is both a carbon and nitrogen source for Microcystis aeruginosa: tracking 13C incorporation at bloom pH conditions. Frontiers in Microbiology  10:1064  doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2019.01064.

  • Stough JMA, N Yutin, YV Chaban, M Moniruzzaman, ER Gann, HL Pound, MM Steffen, JN Black, EV Koonin, SW Wilhelm and SM Short. Genome and environmental activity of a Chrysochromulina parva virus and its virophage.   Frontiers in Microbiology.  10:703   doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00703

  • Liang X, J Zhuang, FE Loeffler, Y Zhang, JM DeBruyn, SW Wilhelm, SM Schaeffer and M Radosevich. 2019. Viral and bacterial community responses to stimulated Fe(III)-bioreduction during simulated subsurface bioremediation 2019. Environmental Microbiology. 21: 2043-2055 doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.14566

  • Larsen ML, SW Wilhelm and JT Lennon. 2019. Nutrient stoichiometry shapes microbial evolution. Ecological Letters.  22:1009-1018 doi:10.1111/ele.13252

  • Coy SR, AN Alsante, JL Van Etten, and SW Wilhelm. Cryopreservation of Paramecium bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 during an active infection cycle of its host.  PLoS ONE  14(3) e0211755. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211755

  • Smith ZJ, RM Martin, B Wei, SW Wilhelm and GL Boyer.  2019. Sparial and temporal variation in paralytic shellfish toxin production by benthic Microseira (Lyngbya) wollei in a freshwater New York lake.  Toxins. 11(1) doi: 10.3390/toxins11010044

  • Martin RM, M Moniruzzaman, NC Mucci, A Willis, JN Woodhouse, Y Xian, C Xiao, CPD Brussaard and SW Wilhelm.  2019. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Virus and host: genomic characterization and ecological relevance Environmental Microbiology 21:1942-1956   doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.14425.

  • Roux S, EM Adriaenssens, BE Dutilh, EV Koonin, AM Kropinski, M Krupovic, JH Kuhn, R Lavigne, JR Brister, A Varsani, C Amid, RK Aziz, SR Bordenstein, P Bork, M Breitbart, GR Cochrane, RA Daly, C Desnues, MB Duhaime, JB Emerson, F Enault, JA Fuhrman, P Hingamp, P Hugenholtz, BL Hurwitz, NN Ivanova, JM Labonte, K-B Lee, RR Malmstrom, M Martinez-Garcia, I Karsch Mizrachi, H Ogata, D Paez-Espino, M-A Petit, C Putonti, T Rattei, A Reyes, F Rodriguez-Valera, K Rosario, L Schriml, F Schulz, GF Steward, MB Sullivan, S Sunagawa, CA Suttle, B Temperton, SG Tringe, R Vega Thurber, NS Webster, KL Whiteson, SW Wilhelm, KE Wommack, Tanja Woyke, K Wrighton, P Yilmaz, T Yoshida, MJ Young, N Yutin, L Zeigler Allen, NC Kyrpides, EA Eloe-Fadrosh. 2019. Minimum Information about an Uncultivated Virus Genome (MIUViG): a community consensus on standards and best practices for describing genome sequences from uncultivated viruses. Nature Biotechnology 37(1): 29  doi:10.1038/nbt.4306.


  • Long AM, MA Staniewski, SW Wilhelm and SM Short. 2018. Algal viruses and cyanophages have distinct distributions in Lake Erie sediments. Aquatic Microbial Ecology  82:161-175  doi:10.3354/ame01888

  • Stough JMA, M Kolton, JE Kostka, DJ Weston, DA Pelletier and SW Wilhelm. 2018. Diversity of active viral infections within the Sphagnum microbiome. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 84:e01124-18  doi:10.1128/AEM.01124-18

  • Tang X-M, LE Krausfeldt, K Shao, GR LeCleir, JMA Stough, G Gao, GL Boyer, Y Zhang, HW Paerl, B Qin and SW Wilhelm. 2018. Seasonal gene expression and the ecophysiological implications of toxin Microcystis aeruginosa blooms in Lake Taihu.  Environmental Science & Technology, 52:11049-11059 doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b01066.

  • Coy SR,ER Gann, HL Pound, SM Short and SW Wilhelm. 2018. Viruses of eukaryotic algae: diversity, methods for detection, and future directions. Viruses 10(9), 487; doi: 10.3390/v10090487

  • Waller RF, PA Cleaves, M Rubio-Brotons, A Woods, SJ Bender, V Edgecomb, ER Gann, AC Jones, L Teytelman, P von Dassow, SW Wilhelm and JL Collier. 2018. Strength in numbers: collaborative science for new experimental model systems. PLoS Biology,   doi:  10.1371/journal.pbio.2006333

  • Moniruzzaman M, ER Gann and SW Wilhelm. 2018.  Infection by a giant virus (AaV) induces widespread physiological reprogramming in Aureococcus anophagefferens CCMP1984 - a harmful bloom algae. Frontiers in Microbiology,  9:752.  doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00752J

  • Peng G, SW Wilhelm, S Lin and X Wang.  2018. The response of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 to different nutrient ratios and changes in phosphorus chemistry. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology. 36:1040 - 1052    doi: 10.1007/s00343-018-7065-1

  • Peng G, RM Martin, SP S Dearth, X Sun, GL Boyer, SR Campagna, S Lin and SW Wilhelm. 2018. Seasonally relevant cool temperatures interact with N chemistry to increase microcystins produced in lab cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843. Environmental Science & Technology.   doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b06532



  • Paerl HW, JT Scott, MJ McCarthy, SE Newell, WS Gardner, KE Havens, DK Hoffman, SW Wilhelm, and WA Wurtsbaugh. 2016.  It takes two to tango: When and where dual nutrient (N & P) reductions are needed to protect lakes and downstream ecosystems. Environmental Science & Technology. 50:10805–10813.  doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02575

  • Stough JMA, SP Dearth, J Denny, GR LeCleir, NW Schmidt, SR Campagna and SW Wilhelm. 2016. Functional characteristics of the gut microbiome in C57BL/6 mice differentially susceptible to Plasmodium yoelii. Frontiers in Microbiology 7:1520 doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01520.

  • Edgar RE, PF Morris, MJ Rozmarynowycz, NA D’souza, M Moniruzzaman, RA Bourbonniere, GS Bullerjahn, V Phuntumart, SW Wilhelm and RML McKay.   2016. Adaptations to photoautotrophy associated with seasonal ice cover in a large lake revealed by metatranscriptome analysis of a diatom bloom. Journal of Great Lakes Research 42:1007-1015.   doi: 10.1016.j.jglr.2016.07.025

  • Cusick KD, SW Wilhelm, PE Hargraves and GS Sayler. 2016. Single-cell PCR of the luciferase conserved catalytic domain reveals a unique cluster defined by a set of core non-synonymous substitutions in the toxic bioluminescent dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense? Aquatic Biology 25:139-150   doi: 10.3354/ab00664

  • Wilhelm SW, SR Coy, ER Gann, M Moniruzzaman and JMA Stough. 2016. Standing on the shoulders of giants: 5 lessons learned about large viruses infecting small eukaryotes and the opportunities they create. PLoS Pathogens  12: e1005752.  doi:  10.1371/journal/ppat.100575

  • Bullerjahn GS, RM McKay, TW Davis, DB Baker, GL Boyer,  LV D’Anglada, GJ Doucette, JC Ho, EG Irwin, CL Kling, RM Kudela, R Kurmayer, AM Michalak, JD Ortiz, TG Otten, HW Paerl, B Qin, BL Sohngen, RP Stumpf, PM Visser and SW Wilhelm. 2016. Global solutions to regional problems: collecting global expertise to address the problem of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. A Lake Erie case study. Harmful Algae 54:223-238   10.1016/j.hal.2016.01.003

  • Harke MJ, MM Steffen, CJ Gobler, TG Otten, SW Wilhelm, SA Wood and HW Paerl. 2016. A review of the global ecology, genomics, and biogeography of the commonly toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis.  Harmful Algae 54: 4-20   doi:10.1016/j.hal.2015.12.007

  • Watson SB, C Miller, G Arhonditsis, GL Boyer, W Carmichael, M Charlton, R. Confesor, D Depew, TO Hook, S Ludsin, G Matisoff, SP McElmurry, M Murray, P Richards, YR Rao, MM Steffen and SW Wilhelm .  2016.  The re-eutrophication of Lake Erie:  harmful algal blooms and hypoxia.  Harmful Algae  56:44-66.   doi:10.1016/j.hal.2016.04.010

  • Belisle BS, MM Steffen, HL Pound, SB Watson, JM DeBruyn,  RA Bourbonniere, GL Boyer and SW Wilhelm. 2016.  Urea in Lake Erie: organic nutrient sources are potentially important drivers of phytoplankton biomass.  Journal of Great Lakes Research  42:599-607  10.1016/j.jglr.2016.03.002

  • Hellweger FL, ND Fredrick, MJ McCarthy, WS Gardner, SW Wilhelm and HW Paerl.  2016.  Dynamic, mechanistic, gene-level modeling of cyanobacteria: Anabaena and nitrogen interaction. Environmental Microbiology  18:2721-2731.  doi:10.1111/1462-2920.13299

  • Morris JJ, ZI Johnson, SW Wilhelm and ER Zinser. 2016.  Diel regulation of hydrogen peroxide defenses by open ocean microbial communities.  Journal of Plankton Research fbw016.   doi:10.1093/plankt/fbw016

  • Villario NF, GR LeCleir, JE Deny, SP Dearth, CL Harding, SS Sloan, JL Gribble, SR Campagna, SW Wilhelm and NW Schmidt.  2016. Composition of the gut microbiota modulates the severity of malaria.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA.  113:2235-2240  doi: 10.1073/pnas.1504887113

  • Moniruzzaman M, ER Gann, GR LeCleir, Y Kang, CJ Gobler and SW Wilhelm.  2016. Diversity and dynamics of algal Megaviridae members during a harmful brown tide caused by the pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens.  FEMS Microbiology Ecology 92: fiw058. doi:10.1093/femsec/fiw058

  • Wigington CH, D Sonderegger, CPD Brussaard, A Buchan, JF Finke, J Fuhrman, JT Lennon, M Middelboe, CA Suttle, C Stock, WH Wilson, KE Wommack, SW Wilhelm and JS Weitz.  2016.  Re-examining the relationship between virus and microbial cell abundances in the global oceans.  Nature Microbiology 2: 15024, 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2015.24.

  • Mojica KDA, J Huisman, SW Wilhelm, and CPD Brussaard. 2015. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean. The ISME  Journal 10:500-513        doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.130


  • Boyd PW, R Strzepek, M Ellwood, DA Hutchins, SD Nodder, BS Twining, SW Wilhelm.  2015. Why are biogenic particulate iron pools uniform across low- and high-iron pelagic ecosystems? Global Biogeochemical Cycles doi:10.1002/2014/GB005014

  • Steen AD, JP Vazin, SM Hagen, KH Mulligan and SW Wilhelm.  2015. Substrate specificity of aquatic extracellular peptidases.  Aquatic Microbial Ecology 75: 271-281.

  • Fulweiler RW, EM Heiss, MK Rogener, SE Newell, GR LeCleir, S Kortebein and SW Wilhelm.  2015. Examining the impact of acetylene on N-fixation and the active sediment microbial community. Frontiers in Microbiology.  6:418 doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00418

  • Weitz JS, CA Stock, SW Wilhelm, L Bourouiba, A Buchan, ML Coleman, MJ Follows, JA Fuhrman, LF Jover, JT Lennon, M Middelboe, DL Sonderegger, CA Suttle, BP Taylor, TF Thingstad, WH Wilson and KE Wommack.   2015. A multitrophic model to quantify the effects of marine viruses on microbial food webs and ecosystem processes. The ISME Journal 9:1352-1364    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.220.

  • Steffen MM, BS Belisle, SB Watson, RA Bourbonniere, GL Boyer and SW Wilhelm.  2015. Metatranscriptomic evidence for co-occurring top-down and bottom-up controls on toxic cyanobacterial communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81:3268 - 3275.    

  • Ellwood  MJ, DA Hutchins, SW Wilhelm, SG Sander, R Strzepek, SD Nodder, A Milne, M Lohan and PW Boyd. 2015.  Iron stable isotopes track pelagic iron cycling dring the subtropical spring phytoplankton bloom.   Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA.   vol. 112 no. 1 E15-E20   doi: 10.1073/pnas.1421576112






Peer reviewed eBook

S.W. Wilhelm, M.G. Weinbauer, and C.A. Suttle [eds.] 2010. Manual of Aquatic Viral Ecology. Waco, TX: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. doi:10.4319/mave.2010.978-0-9845591-0-7





  • Ouellette AJA, SM Handy and SW Wilhelm. 2006. Toxic Microcystis is widespread in Lake Erie: PCR detection of toxin genes and molecular characterization of associated microbial communities. Microbial Ecology 51:154-165

  • Rinta-Kanto JM and SW Wilhelm. 2006. Diversity of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in sparially isolated regions of Lake Erie. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 5083 - 5085.

  • Wilhelm SW, MJ Carberry, ML Eldridge, L Poorvin, MA Saxton and MA Doblin. 2006. Marine and freshwater cyanophages in a Laurentian Great Lake: evidence from infectivity assays and molecular analyses of g20 genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 4957 - 4963. 

  • Gouvêa SP, C Melendez, MJ Carberry, GS. Bullerjahn, TA Langen, SW Wilhelm, and MR Twiss. 2006. Phosphorus bioavailability and plankton distributions in Lake Ontario in the aftermath of Hurricane Isabel, September 2003. The Journal of Great Lakes Research 32:455-470.

  • Wilhelm SW, GS Bullerjahn, ML Eldridge, JM Rinta-Kanto, and RA Bourbonniere. 2006. Seasonal hypoxia and the genetic diversity of prokaryote populations in the central basin hypolimnion of Lake Erie : evidence for abundant cyanobacteria and photosynthesis. The Journal of Great Lakes Research 32:657-671. 

  • Rinta-Kanto JM and SW Wilhelm 2006. The application of molecular tools to freshwater harmful algal blooms: identifying and quantifying toxic cyanobacteria. GLRC Reviews 7:22-24. 

  • Weinbauer MG and SW Wilhelm. 2006. "Marine viruses." Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Jean-Pierre Gattuso. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment. Published online at




  2002 and earlier

  • Wilhelm SW, WH Jeffrey, CA Suttle, and DL Mitchell 2002. Estimation of biologically damaging UV levels in marine surface waters with DNA and viral dosimeters.  Photochemistry and Photobiology  76: 268-273.

  • Zhong Y,  F Chen, SW Wilhelm, L Poorvin, and RE Hodson 2002. Phylogenetic diversity of marine cyanophage isolates and natural virus communities as revealed by sequences of viral capsid assembly protein gene g20. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68:1576-1584

  • Wilhelm SW, SM Brigden and CA Suttle 2002. A dilution technique for the direct measurement of viral production: a comparison in stratified and tidally mixed coastal waters. Microbial Ecology 43:168-173 

  • Wilhelm SW and L Poorvin. 2001. Quantification of algal viruses in marine samples.  In  JH Paul (ed) Methods in Microbiology, vol. 30 Marine Microbiology.  Academic Press.  p 53-66.

  • Wilhelm SW and REH Smith 2000. Bacterial carbon production in Lake Erie is influenced by viruses and solar radiation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 57(2):317-326.

  • Jeffrey  WH, JP Kase, SW  Wilhelm 2000.  Ultraviolet radiation effects on bacterioplankton and viruses in marine ecosystems. In: S.J. De Mora et al. (eds.) Effects Of UV Radiation On Marine Ecosystems.  Cambridge University Press.  pp 206-236

  • Wilhelm SW and CA Suttle 2000. Viruses as regulators of nutrient cycles in the sea.  Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium of Microbial Ecology. C. R. Bell, M. Brylinsky, P. Johnson-Green, Eds. (Atlantic Canada Society for Microbial Ecology, Halifax).

  • Wilhelm SW and CA Suttle 1999. Viruses and nutrient cycles in the sea.  BioScience 49:781-788.

  • Weinbauer MG, SW Wilhelm, RJ Pledger, DL Mitchell and CA Suttle 1999. Resistance to DNA damage in natural viral communities from the Gulf of Mexico. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 17:111-120.

  • Wilhelm SW, KA MacCauley, CG Trick 1998.  The role of catecholate siderophores in cyanobacterial iron acquisition. Limnology and Oceanography 44:992-997.

  • Wilhelm SW,  MG Weinbauer, CA Suttle, RJ Pledger, and DL Mitchell 1998.  Measurements of DNA damage and photoreactivation imply that most viruses in marine surface waters are infective.  Aquatic Microbial Ecology 14:215-222.

  • Wilhelm SW,  MG Weinbauer, CA Suttle, and WH Jeffrey 1998. The role of sunlight in the removal and repair of viruses in the sea. Limnology and Oceanography 43:586-592

  • Weinbauer MG, SW Wilhelm, CA Suttle and DR Garza 1997. Photoreactivation compensates for UV damage and restores infectivity to natural marine viral communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63:2200-2205.     

  • Wilhelm SW, DP Maxwell and CG Trick 1996. Growth rates, iron quotients, and siderophore production in iron-limited Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Limnology and Oceanography 41:89-97.

  • Wilhelm SW 1995. The ecology of cyanobacteria in iron-limited environments: a review of physiology and implications for aquatic environments. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 9:295-303.

  • Trick CG, SW Wilhelm and CM Brown 1995. Pigmentation, protein expression and photosynthetic capacity of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria tenuis grown under low iron. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 41:1117-1123.

  • Wilhelm SW and CG Trick.1995. Physiological profiles of Synechococcus (Cyanophyceae) in iron-limited continuous culture. Journal of Phycology 31:79-85.

  • Wilhelm SW and CG Trick 1995. Effects of vitamin B12 concentration on chemostat cultured Synechococcus PCC 7002. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 41:145-151.

  • Lewis BL, PD Holt, SW Taylor, SW Wilhelm, CG Trick, A Butler and GW Luther III 1995. Voltametric estimation of iron (III) thermodynamic stability constants for catecholate siderophores isolated from marine bacteria and cyanobacteria. Marine Chemistry 50:179-188.

  • Trick CG and SW Wilhelm 1995. Physiological changes in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 exposed to low ferric ion levels. Marine Chemistry 50:207-217.

  • Wilhelm SW and CG Trick 1994. Iron-limited growth in cyanobacteria: multiple siderophore production is a common response. Limnology and Oceanography 39: 1979-1984.




last update: 06/12/2024


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