The Laboratory of Professor Steven Wilhelm.






  • Stough JMA, N Yutin, YV Chaban, M Moniruzzaman, ER Gann, HL Pound, MM Steffen, JN Black, EV Koonin, SW Wilhelm and SM Short. Genome and environmental activity of a Chrysochromulina parva virus and its virophage.   Frontiers in Microbiology.  10:703   doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.00703

  • Liang X, J Zhuang, FE Loeffler, Y Zhang, JM DeBruyn, SW Wilhelm, SM Schaeffer and M Radosevich. 2019. Environmental Microbiology. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.14566

  • Larsen ML, SW Wilhelm and JT Lennon. 2019. Nutrient stoichiometry shapes microbial evolution. Ecological Letters.  doi:10.1111/ele.13252

  • Coy SR, AN Alsante, JL Van Etten, and SW Wilhelm. Cryopreservation of Paramecium bursaria Chlorella Virus-1 during an active infection cycle of its host.  PLoS ONE  14(3) e0211755. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.021175

  • Smith ZJ, RM Martin, B Wei, SW Wilhelm and GL Boyer.  2019. Spatial and temporal variation in paralytic shellfish toxin production by benthic Microseira (Lyngbya) wollei in a freshwater New York lake.  Toxins. 11(1) doi: 10.3390/toxins11010044


  • Long AM, MA Staniewski, SW Wilhelm and SM Short. 2018. Algal viruses and cyanophages have distinct distributions in Lake Erie sediments. Aquatic Microbial Ecology  82:161-175  doi:10.3354/ame01888

  • Martin RM, M Moniruzzaman, NC Mucci, A Willis, JN Woodhouse, Y Xian, C Xiao, CPD Brussaard and SW Wilhelm.  2018. Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii Virus and host: genomic characterization and ecological relevance Environmental Microbiology 10.1111/1462-2920.14425.

  • Stough JMA, M Kolton, JE Kostka, DJ Weston, DA Pelletier and SW Wilhelm. 2018. Diversity of active viral infections within the Sphagnum microbiome. Applied & Environmental Microbiology 84:e01124-18  doi:10.1128/AEM.01124-18

  • Roux S, EM Adriaenssens, BE Dutilh, EV Koonin, AM Kropinski, M Krupovic, JH Kuhn, R Lavigne, JR Brister, A Varsani, C Amid, RK Aziz, SR Bordenstein, P Bork, M Breitbart, GR Cochrane, RA Daly, C Desnues, MB Duhaime, JB Emerson, F Enault, JA Fuhrman, P Hingamp, P Hugenholtz, BL Hurwitz, NN Ivanova, JM Labonte, K-B Lee, RR Malmstrom, M Martinez-Garcia, I Karsch Mizrachi, H Ogata, D Paez-Espino, M-A Petit, C Putonti, T Rattei, A Reyes, F Rodriguez-Valera, K Rosario, L Schriml, F Schulz, GF Steward, MB Sullivan, S Sunagawa, CA Suttle, B Temperton, SG Tringe, R Vega Thurber, NS Webster, KL Whiteson, SW Wilhelm, KE Wommack, Tanja Woyke, K Wrighton, P Yilmaz, T Yoshida, MJ Young, N Yutin, L Zeigler Allen, NC Kyrpides, EA Eloe-Fadrosh. 2018. Minimum Information about an Uncultivated Virus Genome (MIUViG): a community consensus on standards and best practices for describing genome sequences from uncultivated viruses. Nature Biotechnology doi:10.1038/nbt.4306.

  • Tang X-M, LE Krausfeldt, K Shao, GR LeCleir, JMA Stough, G Gao, GL Boyer, Y Zhang, HW Paerl, B Qin and SW Wilhelm. 2018. Seasonal gene expression and the ecophysiological implications of toxin Microcystis aeruginosa blooms in Lake Taihu.  Environmental Science & Technology, 52:11049-11059 doi:10.1021/acs.est.8b01066.

  • Coy SR,ER Gann, HL Pound, SM Short and SW Wilhelm. 2018. Viruses of eukaryotic algae: diversity, methods for detection, and future directions. Viruses 10(9), 487; doi: 10.3390/v10090487

  • Waller RF, PA Cleaves, M Rubio-Brotons, A Woods, SJ Bender, V Edgecomb, ER Gann, AC Jones, L Teytelman, P von Dassow, SW Wilhelm and JL Collier. 2018. Strength in numbers: collaborative science for new experimental model systems. PLoS Biology,   doi:  10.1371/journal.pbio.2006333

  • Moniruzzaman M, ER Gann and SW Wilhelm. 2018.  Infection by a giant virus (AaV) induces widespread physiological reprogramming in Aureococcus anophagefferens CCMP1984 - a harmful bloom algae. Frontiers in Microbiology,  9:752.  doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2018.00752J

  • Peng G, SW Wilhelm, S Lin and X Wang.  2018. The response of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 to different nutrient ratios and changes in phosphorus chemistry. Journal of Oceanology and Limnology. 36:1040 - 1052    doi: 10.1007/s00343-018-7065-1

  • Peng G, RM Martin, SP S Dearth, X Sun, GL Boyer, SR Campagna, S Lin and SW Wilhelm. 2018. Seasonally relevant cool temperatures interact with N chemistry to increase microcystins produced in lab cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa NIES-843. Environmental Science & Technology.   doi:10.1021/acs.est.7b06532



  • Paerl HW, JT Scott, MJ McCarthy, SE Newell, WS Gardner, KE Havens, DK Hoffman, SW Wilhelm, and WA Wurtsbaugh. 2016.  It takes two to tango: When and where dual nutrient (N & P) reductions are needed to protect lakes and downstream ecosystems. Environmental Science & Technology. 50:10805–10813.  doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b02575

  • Stough JMA, SP Dearth, J Denny, GR LeCleir, NW Schmidt, SR Campagna and SW Wilhelm. 2016. Functional characteristics of the gut microbiome in C57BL/6 mice differentially susceptible to Plasmodium yoelii. Frontiers in Microbiology 7:1520 doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2016.01520.

  • Edgar RE, PF Morris, MJ Rozmarynowycz, NA D’souza, M Moniruzzaman, RA Bourbonniere, GS Bullerjahn, V Phuntumart, SW Wilhelm and RML McKay.   2016. Adaptations to photoautotrophy associated with seasonal ice cover in a large lake revealed by metatranscriptome analysis of a diatom bloom. Journal of Great Lakes Research 42:1007-1015.   doi: 10.1016.j.jglr.2016.07.025

  • Cusick KD, SW Wilhelm, PE Hargraves and GS Sayler. 2016. Single-cell PCR of the luciferase conserved catalytic domain reveals a unique cluster defined by a set of core non-synonymous substitutions in the toxic bioluminescent dinoflagellate Pyrodinium bahamense? Aquatic Biology 25:139-150   doi: 10.3354/ab00664

  • Wilhelm SW, SR Coy, ER Gann, M Moniruzzaman and JMA Stough. 2016. Standing on the shoulders of giants: 5 lessons learned about large viruses infecting small eukaryotes and the opportunities they create. PLoS Pathogens  12: e1005752.  doi:  10.1371/journal/ppat.100575

  • Bullerjahn GS, RM McKay, TW Davis, DB Baker, GL Boyer,  LV D’Anglada, GJ Doucette, JC Ho, EG Irwin, CL Kling, RM Kudela, R Kurmayer, AM Michalak, JD Ortiz, TG Otten, HW Paerl, B Qin, BL Sohngen, RP Stumpf, PM Visser and SW Wilhelm. 2016. Global solutions to regional problems: collecting global expertise to address the problem of harmful cyanobacterial blooms. A Lake Erie case study. Harmful Algae 54:223-238   10.1016/j.hal.2016.01.003

  • Harke MJ, MM Steffen, CJ Gobler, TG Otten, SW Wilhelm, SA Wood and HW Paerl. 2016. A review of the global ecology, genomics, and biogeography of the commonly toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis.  Harmful Algae 54: 4-20   doi:10.1016/j.hal.2015.12.007

  • Watson SB, C Miller, G Arhonditsis, GL Boyer, W Carmichael, M Charlton, R. Confesor, D Depew, TO Hook, S Ludsin, G Matisoff, SP McElmurry, M Murray, P Richards, YR Rao, MM Steffen and SW Wilhelm .  2016.  The re-eutrophication of Lake Erie:  harmful algal blooms and hypoxia.  Harmful Algae  56:44-66.   doi:10.1016/j.hal.2016.04.010

  • Belisle BS, MM Steffen, HL Pound, SB Watson, JM DeBruyn,  RA Bourbonniere, GL Boyer and SW Wilhelm. 2016.  Urea in Lake Erie: organic nutrient sources are potentially important drivers of phytoplankton biomass.  Journal of Great Lakes Research  42:599-607  10.1016/j.jglr.2016.03.002

  • Hellweger FL, ND Fredrick, MJ McCarthy, WS Gardner, SW Wilhelm and HW Paerl.  2016.  Dynamic, mechanistic, gene-level modeling of cyanobacteria: Anabaena and nitrogen interaction. Environmental Microbiology  18:2721-2731.  doi:10.1111/1462-2920.13299

  • Morris JJ, ZI Johnson, SW Wilhelm and ER Zinser. 2016.  Diel regulation of hydrogen peroxide defenses by open ocean microbial communities.  Journal of Plankton Research fbw016.   doi:10.1093/plankt/fbw016

  • Villario NF, GR LeCleir, JE Deny, SP Dearth, CL Harding, SS Sloan, JL Gribble, SR Campagna, SW Wilhelm and NW Schmidt.  2016. Composition of the gut microbiota modulates the severity of malaria.  Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA.  113:2235-2240  doi: 10.1073/pnas.1504887113

  • Moniruzzaman M, ER Gann, GR LeCleir, Y Kang, CJ Gobler and SW Wilhelm.  2016. Diversity and dynamics of algal Megaviridae members during a harmful brown tide caused by the pelagophyte Aureococcus anophagefferens.  FEMS Microbiology Ecology 92: fiw058. doi:10.1093/femsec/fiw058

  • Wigington CH, D Sonderegger, CPD Brussaard, A Buchan, JF Finke, J Fuhrman, JT Lennon, M Middelboe, CA Suttle, C Stock, WH Wilson, KE Wommack, SW Wilhelm and JS Weitz.  2016.  Re-examining the relationship between virus and microbial cell abundances in the global oceans.  Nature Microbiology 2: 15024, 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2015.24.

  • Mojica KDA, J Huisman, SW Wilhelm, and CPD Brussaard. 2015. Latitudinal variation in virus-induced mortality of phytoplankton across the North Atlantic Ocean. The ISME  Journal 10:500-513        doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.130


  • Boyd PW, R Strzepek, M Ellwood, DA Hutchins, SD Nodder, BS Twining, SW Wilhelm.  2015. Why are biogenic particulate iron pools uniform across low- and high-iron pelagic ecosystems? Global Biogeochemical Cycles doi:10.1002/2014/GB005014

  • Steen AD, JP Vazin, SM Hagen, KH Mulligan and SW Wilhelm.  2015. Substrate specificity of aquatic extracellular peptidases.  Aquatic Microbial Ecology 75: 271-281.

  • Fulweiler RW, EM Heiss, MK Rogener, SE Newell, GR LeCleir, S Kortebein and SW Wilhelm.  2015. Examining the impact of acetylene on N-fixation and the active sediment microbial community. Frontiers in Microbiology.  6:418 doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00418

  • Weitz JS, CA Stock, SW Wilhelm, L Bourouiba, A Buchan, ML Coleman, MJ Follows, JA Fuhrman, LF Jover, JT Lennon, M Middelboe, DL Sonderegger, CA Suttle, BP Taylor, TF Thingstad, WH Wilson and KE Wommack.   2015. A multitrophic model to quantify the effects of marine viruses on microbial food webs and ecosystem processes. The ISME Journal 9:1352-1364    doi: 10.1038/ismej.2014.220.

  • Steffen MM, BS Belisle, SB Watson, RA Bourbonniere, GL Boyer and SW Wilhelm.  2015. Metatranscriptomic evidence for co-occurring top-down and bottom-up controls on toxic cyanobacterial communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 81:3268 - 3275.    

  • Ellwood  MJ, DA Hutchins, SW Wilhelm, SG Sander, R Strzepek, SD Nodder, A Milne, M Lohan and PW Boyd. 2015.  Iron stable isotopes track pelagic iron cycling dring the subtropical spring phytoplankton bloom.   Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, USA.   vol. 112 no. 1 E15-E20   doi: 10.1073/pnas.1421576112






Peer reviewed eBook

S.W. Wilhelm, M.G. Weinbauer, and C.A. Suttle [eds.] 2010. Manual of Aquatic Viral Ecology. Waco, TX: American Society of Limnology and Oceanography. doi:10.4319/mave.2010.978-0-9845591-0-7





  • Ouellette AJA, SM Handy and SW Wilhelm. 2006. Toxic Microcystis is widespread in Lake Erie: PCR detection of toxin genes and molecular characterization of associated microbial communities. Microbial Ecology 51:154-165

  • Rinta-Kanto JM and SW Wilhelm. 2006. Diversity of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in spatially isolated regions of Lake Erie. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 5083 - 5085.

  • Wilhelm SW, MJ Carberry, ML Eldridge, L Poorvin, MA Saxton and MA Doblin. 2006. Marine and freshwater cyanophages in a Laurentian Great Lake: evidence from infectivity assays and molecular analyses of g20 genes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72: 4957 - 4963. 

  • Gouvêa SP, C Melendez, MJ Carberry, GS. Bullerjahn, TA Langen, SW Wilhelm, and MR Twiss. 2006. Phosphorus bioavailability and plankton distributions in Lake Ontario in the aftermath of Hurricane Isabel, September 2003. The Journal of Great Lakes Research 32:455-470.

  • Wilhelm SW, GS Bullerjahn, ML Eldridge, JM Rinta-Kanto, and RA Bourbonniere. 2006. Seasonal hypoxia and the genetic diversity of prokaryote populations in the central basin hypolimnion of Lake Erie : evidence for abundant cyanobacteria and photosynthesis. The Journal of Great Lakes Research 32:657-671. 

  • Rinta-Kanto JM and SW Wilhelm 2006. The application of molecular tools to freshwater harmful algal blooms: identifying and quantifying toxic cyanobacteria. GLRC Reviews 7:22-24. 

  • Weinbauer MG and SW Wilhelm. 2006. "Marine viruses." Encyclopedia of Earth. Eds. Jean-Pierre Gattuso. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment. Published online at




  2002 and earlier

  • Wilhelm SW, WH Jeffrey, CA Suttle, and DL Mitchell 2002. Estimation of biologically damaging UV levels in marine surface waters with DNA and viral dosimeters.  Photochemistry and Photobiology  76: 268-273.

  • Zhong Y,  F Chen, SW Wilhelm, L Poorvin, and RE Hodson 2002. Phylogenetic diversity of marine cyanophage isolates and natural virus communities as revealed by sequences of viral capsid assembly protein gene g20. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 68:1576-1584

  • Wilhelm SW, SM Brigden and CA Suttle 2002. A dilution technique for the direct measurement of viral production: a comparison in stratified and tidally mixed coastal waters. Microbial Ecology 43:168-173 

  • Wilhelm SW and L Poorvin. 2001. Quantification of algal viruses in marine samples.  In  JH Paul (ed) Methods in Microbiology, vol. 30 Marine Microbiology.  Academic Press.  p 53-66.

  • Wilhelm SW and REH Smith 2000. Bacterial carbon production in Lake Erie is influenced by viruses and solar radiation. Canadian Journal of Fisheries & Aquatic Sciences 57(2):317-326.

  • Jeffrey  WH, JP Kase, SW  Wilhelm 2000.  Ultraviolet radiation effects on bacterioplankton and viruses in marine ecosystems. In: S.J. De Mora et al. (eds.) Effects Of UV Radiation On Marine Ecosystems.  Cambridge University Press.  pp 206-236

  • Wilhelm SW and CA Suttle 2000. Viruses as regulators of nutrient cycles in the sea.  Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium of Microbial Ecology. C. R. Bell, M. Brylinsky, P. Johnson-Green, Eds. (Atlantic Canada Society for Microbial Ecology, Halifax).

  • Wilhelm SW and CA Suttle 1999. Viruses and nutrient cycles in the sea.  BioScience 49:781-788.

  • Weinbauer MG, SW Wilhelm, RJ Pledger, DL Mitchell and CA Suttle 1999. Resistance to DNA damage in natural viral communities from the Gulf of Mexico. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 17:111-120.

  • Wilhelm SW, KA MacCauley, CG Trick 1998.  The role of catecholate siderophores in cyanobacterial iron acquisition. Limnology and Oceanography 44:992-997.

  • Wilhelm SW,  MG Weinbauer, CA Suttle, RJ Pledger, and DL Mitchell 1998.  Measurements of DNA damage and photoreactivation imply that most viruses in marine surface waters are infective.  Aquatic Microbial Ecology 14:215-222.

  • Wilhelm SW,  MG Weinbauer, CA Suttle, and WH Jeffrey 1998. The role of sunlight in the removal and repair of viruses in the sea. Limnology and Oceanography 43:586-592

  • Weinbauer MG, SW Wilhelm, CA Suttle and DR Garza 1997. Photoreactivation compensates for UV damage and restores infectivity to natural marine viral communities. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 63:2200-2205.     

  • Wilhelm SW, DP Maxwell and CG Trick 1996. Growth rates, iron quotients, and siderophore production in iron-limited Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Limnology and Oceanography 41:89-97.

  • Wilhelm SW 1995. The ecology of cyanobacteria in iron-limited environments: a review of physiology and implications for aquatic environments. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 9:295-303.

  • Trick CG, SW Wilhelm and CM Brown 1995. Pigmentation, protein expression and photosynthetic capacity of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria tenuis grown under low iron. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 41:1117-1123.

  • Wilhelm SW and CG Trick.1995. Physiological profiles of Synechococcus (Cyanophyceae) in iron-limited continuous culture. Journal of Phycology 31:79-85.

  • Wilhelm SW and CG Trick 1995. Effects of vitamin B12 concentration on chemostat cultured Synechococcus PCC 7002. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 41:145-151.

  • Lewis BL, PD Holt, SW Taylor, SW Wilhelm, CG Trick, A Butler and GW Luther III 1995. Voltametric estimation of iron (III) thermodynamic stability constants for catecholate siderophores isolated from marine bacteria and cyanobacteria. Marine Chemistry 50:179-188.

  • Trick CG and SW Wilhelm 1995. Physiological changes in the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 exposed to low ferric ion levels. Marine Chemistry 50:207-217.

  • Wilhelm SW and CG Trick 1994. Iron-limited growth in cyanobacteria: multiple siderophore production is a common response. Limnology and Oceanography 39: 1979-1984.



last update: 04/11/2019


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